Fabricating Solar Cells and Modules
A variety of technical issues are involved in the fabrication of solar cells. The semiconductor material is often doped with impurities such as boron or phosphorus to tweak the frequencies of light that it responds to. Other treatments include surface passivation of the material and application of antireflection coatings. The encapsulation of the complete PV module in a protective shell is another important step in the fabrication process.